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Elvy Lewis and other Lewis notes

Elvy Lewis is the second husband of Sally Smith, the beloved Meherrin woman by which many tribal members descend. He has been somewhat elusive and hard trace and document his familial origins. The Lewis name has been in the area for quite some time, yet the records, what there is left of them, does not exactly paint a clear picture as to the relationship of the Lewis. But, never the less, we can make some inferred guesses.

In Chowan County, one of my two LEWIS family lines is carrying the name, “Luten Lewis” and apparently was early intermarried with the Thomas Luten (Sr. or Jr.) line there in Chowan County.……….. Jumping into the line at the level of “Luten Lewis” – Luten was father of ELVEY LEWIS who left Chowan Co. & removed to Barbour Co., AL in the early 1830’s, where his daughter Emeline married Needham Lee, Jr., Nov. 1835. Emeline had a sister (Elizabeth?) who married a King who was also out of the Chowan Co., NC Kings who’d apparently co-migrated into Barbour Co., AL. I’d be very interested to hear what you’ve found out about your own Luten connection!
THANK YOU!
KAY GUNN

https://www.ancestry.com/boards/thread.aspx?mv=flat&m=732&p=localities.northam.usa.states.northcarolina.counties.chowan

I am not 100% convinced that Elvy Lewis, husband of Sally Smith, is the son of this Elvey Lewis, whose second wife was Nancy Bottoms. But, we do know that Hertford county was formed in 1759 from parts of the Chowan, Bertie and Northampton Counties and right now this seems to place them within proximity. The key here in this search inquiry could be in the relationships the Lewis have with the Odom, King, and the Lee. There are members of the Nottoway that descend from King and Odom that migrated to the surrounding counties of Robeson and then to South Carolina. Joey’s Lewis family also migrated to Sandy Bluff in SC, an area identified by Richard Colbert as being a place of wintering, settling Indian traders. https://nativeheritageproject.com/2014/12/27/james-logan-colbert-of-the-chickasaws-and-allied-trader-families/

**Apparently this Elvy Lewis family ended up in the Cumberland County area where some of my King and Lee cousins migrated to and knew them from Chowan\Bertie Co, then dispatched from there to Barbour County, Alabama.

Take a look at this note from one of my favorite bloggers by Marc Anderson at https://andersonnc.wordpress.com.

*The immigrant John Browne in the 1690s married a “Bridgett____” … I think this is Bridgett Lewis who is associated with a Brasswell perhaps MERELY as a friend but nonetheless associated. Its that SIMPLE… a mere hunch. After the death of the immigrant (old man) John Browne in 1713?… there is a Bridgett Brown dealing with various Lewis children which in several instances also involve various Brown(e) folks.

These are early migrant families in the area, many in which were involved in trading with Indians. Within the same Anderson blog there are a couple mentions of a Thomas Luten in the Chowan District. The previous researcher claims the Luten family is the source of the Luten first name among the Lewis family.

**I’m kin to these Brown and the Braswell families. My 9th great Aunt Martha Braswell married William Brown, son of this trader John Brown. Her sister Ann Braswell and Matthew Strickland Jr. are my 8th great grandparents twice.

Chowan pcinct. Ss: These may certify yt. at a Court holden for ye. Precinct __of Chowan ye. first Munday in Aprill at ye. house of Cap. Henderson Walk__ Ano. Dm. 1694. Psent. Thomas Blount Esqr. psident, Jno Porter Junr., Tho. Luten, James Long, Cotton Robison, Justices.

It is very probable that the Luten Lewis in the tree of Elvy Lewis is named so for the Luten family kinship with this Thomas Luten. I do not have the definite paperwork that says that there was a Luten marriage into the Lewis.

Which this also leads us to Joey’s Lewis family and how they tie into the scenario. Earlier was mentioned a Bridgette Brown Lewis.

Abraham Blewlet’s daughter Janet married William Lewis, son of Isaac Lewis and Margaret Hooker.

9 Aug 1706…. John Browne and wife, Bridgett Browne, to Samuel Canidy…. 220 acres (being a patent dated 29 Apr 1692 in the lower parish on the south side of Kingsale Swamp and bounded by Jonathan Robinson and William Stott (Scott?). Wit: Richard Exum and William Murray.
Bridgett Brown of Chowan Prect. to Isacc Lewis of ye Co. of Albemarle, my well beloved Son 15 July 1713 Letter of Attorney to prosecute to Judgement any person I, the sd. Bridgett Brown , shall at this time or from time to time bring action against and likewise to Defend any action brought against me Wit. Treddell Keefe, Mary Lewis m her mark Reg. (not given) [3]

Bridgette Lewis was married to the old Indian trader John Brown by 1706. This power of attorney names Bridgett Brown’s son as Isaac Lewis. The same Isaac Lewis that has land on the map above close to John Brown, “Indian trader.” This makes things appear like John Brown was indeed the step father of Isaac Lewis. Other Lewis men of age in the area that are probably sons of Bridgette Brown and her deceased husband Edward Lewis is Richard, William and John. Richard Lewis is likely the father of Luten Lewis, who was the father of Elvy Lewis. Elvy Lewis the younger stayed in Hertford while his family left and moved with the migration south.

This Hertford county tax list of district number 4 contains Joey’s Isaac Lewis and John Van Pelt kin/Cousins, which are from younger generations, next door to each other. This district contains the Wynn family also which places them with the Meherrin area.

DISTRICT NO. 4

Co. Benjamin Wynns 1964, 9, 5, 9, 6, 40, 100, -, 1727
Thomas Wynns 1000, 4, -, 5, 3, -, 400, -, 1395
James Outlaw 180, -, -, -, 1, 5, -, -, 95
Nathaniel Nichols -, -, -, -, 1, 2, -, -, 12
Mor. Ralls (Poll tax) -, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, 100
James Brown 125, -, -, 1, 3, 6, -, -, 156
James Askew 100, -, -, -, 3, 7, -, -, 47
John carter 1698, 3, 2, 3, 5, 21, -, -, 741
William Poythress 200, -, -, -, 1, 3, -, -, 53
Thomas Peel 25, -, -, -, 1, 3, -, -, 33
Jesse Ralls 244, -, 1, -, 2, 3, -, -, 89
James Sparkman 175, -, -, -, 3, 10, -, -, 120(?)
Moses Mandley 50, -, -, -, 2, 4, -, -, 44
Sam Thomas 130, -, -, -, 3, 4, -, -, 80
Francis Brown 200, -, -, -, 2, 2, -, -, 70
Jesse Weston 80, -, -, -, 2, 9, -, -, 59
James Harrisson 325, 3, -, 3, 2, 14, -, -, 538
Willis Nichols 260, 1, -, -, 2, 9, -, -, 149
James Norvill 96, -, -, -, 1, 3, -, -, 100
Isaac Lewis 70, -, -, -, 1, 2, -, -, 80
John VanPelt 150, 0, 0, 2, 2, 12, -, -, 350

http://files.usgwarchives.net/nc/hertford/taxlists/1782tax.txt

And this much earlier patent also seems to place them close to the Meherrin as well.

Treddell Keefe of Chowan Precinct, yeoman and Eliner Keefe to Edward Moore of Nancy(?) in ye Colony and Dominion of Virginia. 20 January in ye 10th year of ye Reign of our Soverign Lady Ann by ye Grace of God Queen of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Queen, defender of ye faith in ye year of Our Lord 1712. For 15 (sic) pounds of Tobacco. 150 acres more or less, joining Peterson, Deep Branch, Robert Potter (?), a path and ye Creek and is that Messuage and parsel of Land at a place called Meherring. Part of a patent granted to the said Keefe March 5, 1711/12 by Edward Hyde with ye consent of ye Lord Proprietors of Carolina.
Witnesses are John Smith, _______Lewis () his mark. Reg. (not given).[4]

Another inquiry from the Lewis researcher Kay Gunn seeking answers to the puzzle.

JOHN SMITH
KAYGUNN67 (View posts)
Posted: 01 Mar 1999 06:00AM
Classification: Query
Edited: 22 Jun 2001 12:44AM
Surnames: LEWIS, SMITH, LUTON, ODOM, BARNES, PIPKIN, LEE
AM INTERESTED IN DEVELOPING THE LINE OF “GRAND-FATHER JOHN SMITH,” “UNCLE JOHN SMITH” AND “UNCLE BENJAMIN ODOM” AS LISTED IN THE WILL OF LUTON LEWIS OF GATES CO., NC, A DESCENDANT OF RICHARD LEWIS OF CHOWAN CO., NC, THROUGH RICHARD’S SON, JOHN LEWIS. LUTON LEWIS’S GATES CO. WILL 1815 WITS: JAMES BOOTHE, JOHN SMITH, JESSE ARLINE. THIS LUTON WAS BROTHER OF MY ELVEY LEWIS AND BOTH WERE SONS OF LUTON LEWIS, SR. OF GATES CO. WILL 1807,SON OF JOHN LEWIS. I AM ALSO INTERESTED IN WILLIAM A. MATTHEWS OF GATES CO WILL 1845 NAMING GRAND-DAU. EMELINE LEE. EMELINE LEWIS m. NEEDHAM LEE, SR., BARBOUR CO., AL, 1835., MY LINE.

https://www.ancestry.com/boards/localities.northam.usa.states.northcarolina.counties.chowan/226/mb.ashx

**The Needham Lee mentioned is my distant cousin through the Lee and Bryant families. Needham was a common name in my Lee, Bryant, King, Powell, Gardner, Moore, etc. lines because of, in part, due to the popularity of Needham Bryant, a well thought of Indian agent to the Tuscarora tribe.

Take backs:

#1. It is likely that Richard Lewis of Hertford is the great grandfather of the elder Elvy Lewis’ and the son of Bridgette Lewis Brown. Much more evidence is needed to make this assumption true.

#2. It is likely that the younger Elvy Lewis’ mother was a Matthews and was not white. But more evidence is needed to verify this assumption.

#3. The Lewis and Browns are intertwined with my family; per key notes marked **. I may be related to Bridgette Lewis Brown.

Martha Brown, my 1st cousin 9x removed and granddaughter of trader John Brown, married Gideon Gibson Jr., son of the regulator that moved to South Carolina and was determined to be Indian by the governor. Gideon Gibson Sr. is very likely my 9th great uncle. He was also a land owner at Sandy Bluff.

Featured

Intro: My Families in Bertie

TuscaroraWhat a Journey!! It took me years, decades even, to get my re”search” to Bertie County in North Carolina. One line after the other on both my father’s parent’s lines seemed to converge in this controversial land of Bertie, deep in the heart of Tuscarora territory.

I grew up distantly from my grandparents as a Marine Corps brat. I was born at Balboa Naval Hospital in San Diego, California to my Marine parents. When we would visit my father’s hometown of Waxahachie, Texas, I would hear the stories of being Native American and African American but never really got a good grasp of what that meant until we moved to Texas, after my father had retired from the Marines, and after living in my mother’s home state of New Jersey close to her mother for a year.

Waxahachie is deep in what was the segregated south. It was mentioned by Festus that he had to go visit a sick uncle in Waxahachie, in an episode of Gunsmoke. It’s founding “father” was Emory Rogers who was born and raised around New Echota, Cherokee territory yet, the prejudice towards Natives, or anyone who was not white, was very real. Stories I heard of the abuse toward my family in those days were not good, but we were proud of our heritage. In time I would learn just how deep.

Family names of interest in Bertie Co.

Robbins/Robins

Turner

King

Clark/Clarke/Clerk

Furgeson

Boone

Bunch

Gibson

Moore

Powell

Ingram

Gilliam

Holder

Smith

Bryan/Bryant

Needham

Whitmel

Blunt/Blount

Pugh

Williams

Dean/Deane/Deens

Page

Hunter

Parker

Benton/Banton/Bainton

Cotton

Other families of interest:

James

McCullough

Boswell

Sherman

Vick

Braswell

Strickland

Bass

Ashcraft

Huntley

Bennett

Harmon

McCoy

Mary Boone King

I start with Mary Boone, daughter of Joseph Boone who died in Edenton, NC in 1728 when she was around four or five years old. Mary Boone married Michael King in Sampson/Dublin County NC after his first wife, Catherine Snell, passed away. How and when she got to Duplin, I do not know, but she was surrounded by Boone and Stricklands in Duplin and intrinsically linked to Johnston County. The question in my mind is still, Is this the Mary Boone, wife of my Michael King? With new insight, the conclusion may be affirmative.

The Last Will and Testament of Joseph Boon
I Joseph Boon: Being Very Sick and weak of Body but in perfect memory; Do give and Dispose of what worldly Estate God Hath been pleased to Endow me with. I Give and Dispose after This manner following:
First I bequeath my Soul to God who gave it and my Body to be buried after a decent manner, according as my Execrs shall see convenient.
Item: I give unto my son James Boon one certain tract or devident of land granted by patent in my son James Boon own hand.
Item: I give unto my son Joseph Boon on hundred acres of land lying upon Ochonechay Neck at Roanoak.
Item: I give unto my son Thomas Boon one hundred and eighty acres, it being part of a track of land containing 480 acres granted by patent, baring date ye first Day of March 1719, lying on ye south side of Mehoring River.
Item: I give unto my son Ratliff Boon my hold dwelling plantation containing 380 acres, I say unto my son Ratliff after his Mother’s decease.
Item: I give unto my son James Boon my new gun.
Item: I give unto my son Joseph Boon my old gun.
Item: I give unto my son James Boon one certain gray mare branded with the barrel of a gun and her increase to my sons each of them one.
Item: I give unto my sister Martha Baley, a hiefer and calf to share free or manage.
Item: I give unto my son Thomas Boon my sword.
Item: I give unto my son James Boon one iron pot, a small one, when he comes of ye age of sixteen years.
Item: I give unto my two daughters Mary and Elizabeth to each of them one cow and calf.
Item: I give unto my Loving Wife all ye rest of my moveable Estate, within and without for her to enjoy during her life and afterwards to be disposed to among my children. And I desire my two young horses to be sold ye produce of them to be disposed towards ye payment of my debts.
I appoint my loving wife Ex. of this my Last Will and Testament.
The Last Will and Testament of Joseph Boon, Testator: Witness my hand this
19th Day of Feb. 1728
Witness our hands Joseph Boon
Signed Sealed in ye presences of X his mark
Thomas Boon X his mark
Nathaniel Cooper
Source: Department of Archives and History of North Carolina; North Carolina Wills, Vol. 3, page 76

****Some bad genealogies places my Joseph Boone’s second wife as Anne Axtel, widow of John Alexander, which is totally false. Anne Axtell Alexander Boone died 1751 and was laid to rest next to her husband Joseph Boone who died in 1734 and is buried at Mount Boone Cemetery in Sommerville, SC. This Joseph Boone was a merchant from London that came to SC in 1694 and never had any children. ****

In this will of Joseph Boone above, it says, “I say unto my son Ratliff after his mother’s decease.” This line tells me that Ratliff’s mother is still alive when Joseph wrote his will Feb 19, 1728. Which also means he only had one wife, Elizabeth. To further enforce this idea, Mary Best Bell’s “Colonial Bertie County, North Carolina Deed Book A-H, 1720-1757. Easley, SC: Southern Historical Press, 1963 pg. 54 at entry 426 says “Joseph Boon and wife Elizabeth of Chowan Precinct to Richard Bayley Jan. 27, 1727/28……Wit: Nathan Cooper. May court 1728….” Richard Bayley is Joseph’s brother-in-law, and Elizabeth was still alive in 1728.

This Nathan Cooper keeps popping up. Wonder who he is?

NC – GRANTOR/GRANTEE INDEX OF JOHNSTON, DOBBS, AND LENOIR COUNTIES

Old Dobbs County BOOK 3 – Apr 1754 – Apr 1755

From                            TO                             PAGE #
———————————————————————

Bryant, Arthur                  Henry Jurnigan (Jernigan)      24
Bright, Simon                   Thomas Abbett (Abbott)         27
Bryant, John                    John Williamson                36
Belk, William                   Rhoady (Rhodo) Croom           59
Bright, William                 John Winders & others          68
Bryant, John                    John Dudley (Dudly)            82
Blackledge, Richard             William Moore                  102
Ballard, John                   John Ballard                   105
Blackledge, Richard             Daniel Herring                 121
Brooks, John                    William Teague                 142
Blackman, Stephen               Thomas Price                   145
Bruce, John                     Joseph Dawson                  193
Boon (Boone), Joseph            Ratcliff Boon (Boone)          195
Blackledge, Benjamin            Thos. Terrence                 204 *
Blackman, Stephen               William Ingram                 231
Bryant, Needham                 James Boggs                    250
Blackman, Stephen               Jesse Powell                   253
Bargerson, John                 Sarah Pipkin                   270
Boon, Joseph                    Ratcliff Boon                  272
Boyet (Boyt), Thomas            Thomas Boyet (Boyt), Jr.       282
Benton, Samuel                  William Janeway                287
Boyt, Thomas                    Thomas Boyt, Jr.               304
Boon, Joseph                    Ratcliff Boon                  312
Benton, Samuel                  William Janaway (Janeway)      315
Baker, John                     George Graham                  343
Box, Thomas                     Samuel Box                     347
Bryant, Hardy                   James Long                     370
Blackledge, Richard             Isaac Carter                   377 *
Blackman, John                  Moses Benton                   395
Boyt, Thomas & others           George Boyt                    411
Burgerson, John & wife          Sarah Deplin                   437

Joseph Boone in the land records shows deed transfers to his brother Ratliff. Both men mentioned in the will of their father Joseph above. The one I am tracking though is their sister Mary Boone mentioned in the will. Right now I am not sure if they stayed in Chowan county on Joseph’s plantation for a while or if the mother Elizabeth remarried and moved off. Somehow they ended up in Duplin County.

The Kings

JOHNSTON/DOBBS/LENOIR COUNTIES GRANTOR INDEX
BOOK 20 – 1802, 1803

Grantor                      Grantee                   Page Number
_____________________________________________________________________
Killpatrick, Fras            Lewis Whitfield               14
King, Nancy                  John Howell                   81
King, Joseph                 Ezekiel Creech                89
Kittrel, David & others      Moses Ratclif                 95

Moore, John                  Richard Daugherty            124 *
Same                         Robert Moore                 130
Mosely, Elizabeth            Tully Mosely                 143
(Eliza)
Moore, John                  Simeon Langstone             144
(Langston)
Mosely, Tully                John Parrott                 148 *

Joseph King, my 5th great grandfather, married Zilpha Powell, daughter of Kedar Powell and Hester Ingram in Johnston County before the date of the birth of their oldest child, I would assume, I have recorded as 1796. Kedar and his father Isaac Powell are buried in Brogdon in Johston County. Isaac Powell was married to Ann Needham. According to the website “NC Home Town Locator” https://northcarolina.hometownlocator.com/nc/johnston/brogden.cfm the area of Brogdon is located within the township of “Boon Hill”, about 7 miles from Smithfield.

Joseph King was not in the 1790 census of Johnston County but bought land by November 1801 in Johnston County.  I would like to know how he met Zilpha Powell.

File contributed for use in USGenWeb Archives by:
Russell King n/a September 22, 2009, 4:44 pm

Written: 1801

Nov 1801 – Joseph KING to Ezekiel CREECH – E: 24 Jan 1802 Liber C pages 89
and 90

Reason for the move of Joseph King from Sampson, or Cumberland to Johnston County? Migratory patterns for Tuscarora and Meherrin peoples takes us to both Johnston and Sampson counties following several family lines. And the shift back and forth between Johnston and Sampson can be seen tracking some of these same families that the modern Tuscarora in the areas still claim today. It is written in a Bio for the King that Joseph and his brother, sons of Mary Boone King, went to Georgia together.

At least the two oldest children of Joseph and Zilpha King were born in North Carolina, Johnston County, before their move to Georgia. The rest were born in Georgia’s Wiregrass communities. Some of those in Georgia researching their roots claim these families were Lumbee and Tuscarora.

My 4th great grandfather Charles King, son of Joseph and Zilpha, married Pheriba Moore in Georgia, daughter of John Moore and Prudence Ann Holder, of both Bertie and Johnston counties. Several family member are represented in this 1790 census.

Johnston County, NC – 1790 Census

Copyright. All rights reserved.
http://www.usgwarchives.net/copyright.htm

1st column – Heads of families
2nd column – # Free white males 16 year upwards & head of families
3rd column – # Free white males under 16 years
4th celumn – # Free white females & head of families
5th column – # All other free persons
6th column – # Slaves

Joseph Boon, Jr. 3 3 3 3 24
Joseph Boon, Sr. 1 .. 1 2 10     fathers name was Joseph Boon who passed away in Edenton, NC 1728 and mother was Elizabeth unknown. His sister Mary Boone married Michael King in Duplin Co.
Benjamin Strickland 1 2 3 .. ..
Lovil Bryan 1 .. .. .. 20
Joseph Ingram 1 3 2 .. 12 probably brother to Hester Ingram Powell, wife of Kedar Powell, son of Isaac Powell Sr. Hester and Joseph’s parents were William Ingram and Barthania Lee. Barthania was daughter of John Lee and Mary Bryan, sister to Needham Bryan Sr.
Nathan Powell 1 .. 2 .. 10
David Strickland 1 2 3 .. ..
Uriah Strickland 1 .. 3 .. ..
Needham Powell 1 2 1 .. 7 son of Isaac Powell Sr. died 1781, buried in Brogdon

William Farmer 1 4 3 .. 10 married Bersheba Powell, daughter of Isaac Powell Sr.
Isaac Powell 2 1 5 .. 7  this has to be Isaac Powell Jr. because his father died 1781
Jeremiah Powell 1 .. .. .. 5
Deal Collins 2 1 3 .. ..
Jeremiah Strickland 1 .. 4 .. ..
George Collins 2 .. 4 .. ..
John Odum 3 .. 3 .. 11
Alice Keen 2 .. 3 .. ..
John Holliman 1 .. 4 .. ..
John Bass 1 4 3 .. ..   probably a cousin to my Holder/Bunch
Elizabeth Holder 3 1 2 .. 10
John Price 1 .. 6 .. ..probably a cousin to my Holder/Bunch
Dixon Price 1 1 4 ..probably a cousin to my Holder/Bunch
Richard Price 2 2 2 .. ..probably a cousin to my Holder/Bunch
Etheldred Price 1 1 3 .. ..probably a cousin to my Holder/Bunch
Rice Price, Sr. 2 4 3 .. ..     husband of Mourning Holder, daughter of James Holder and granddaughter of Thomas Holder and Susannah Bunch
Nathan Price 1 .. 6 .. ..probably a cousin to my Holder/Bunch
Micajah Price 2 2 3 .. ..probably a cousin to my Holder/Bunch  Ditto to the rest
Randal Moore 1 3 1 .. ..
Rice Price, Jr. 1 .. 1 .. ..   Son of Mourning Holder Price and Rice Price Sr. definitely a cousin to my Holder/Bunch
James Price, Jr. 1 2 2 .. ..probably a cousin to my Holder/Bunch
Simon Price 1 2 3 .. 1probably a cousin to my Holder/Bunch

Samuel Strickland 1 .. 1 .. ..
Joseph Gardner 3 1 6 .. ..
John Gardner 2 2 3 .. ..
Moses Eason, Sr. 4 2 6 .. .. witnessed the will of John Moore 1777 as it was written by Needham Bryan Jr.
John Moore 1 4 4 .. ..
Sanders Eason 1 1 2 .. ..
Moses Eason, Jr. 1 1 2 .. ..
John Butler 2 1 4 .. ..
William Gardner 1 1 2 .. ..
Jeremiah Price 1 3 3 .. ..
Rice Price 1 1 3 .. ..
John Lee 3 .. 2 .. 6
William Lee 1 .. 3 .. ..
Seth Holliman 1 1 4 .. ..
Edward Lee 1 2 1 .. ..
Lewis Bryan 3 2 5 .. .. Brother of Needham killed by Jenny
John Lee 2 1 3 .. ..
Ilse King 2 2 4 .. 2
William Bryan 3 1 1 .. 2
Arthur Bryan 1 1 .. .. 11 brother of Needham, Needham Sr. mentions his sons of Johnston County in a Bertie County deed
John Price 2 .. 3 .. ..
Edward Price 1 1 1 .. 2
Thomas Price 1 4 2 .. ..
James Price 1 .. 2 .. ..
Needham Bryan 1 .. 2 .. 6       this is the grandson of Needham Bryant the Tuscarora agent from Indian Woods Snow Field Plantation. His father Needham Jr. wrote the verbal will of my 6th great grandfather John Moore in 1777 and was killed by Jenny by poisoning in 1780. This Needham in the 1790 census was sheriff and was ordered to execute Jenny.
Rial Price 1 .. 1 .. ..
Clement Bryan 1 .. .. .. 13
Hardy Bryan 1 6 2 .. 14
John Bryan 2 .. 2 .. 22
Stephen Powell .. .. .. 11 ..
Asa Bryan 1 2 3 .. 1
Lewis Bryan 1 .. 1 .. ..
Mary Lee 1 .. 3 .. 6
Andrew Collins 1 1 1 .. 1
John Rhoads 3 4 4 .. ..
Shadrach Ingram 1 3 8 .. 4
Wm. Lee 2 2 6 .. ..
David Lee, Sr. 2 1 3 .. 5
John Bryan 1 2 6 .. 2
Samuel Lee 3 1 2 .. 1
Cato Lee 1 3 2 .. ..
David Lee, Jr. 2 3 4 .. ..
Stephen Lee 1 3 1 .. 1
Wm. Bryan 1 2 2 .. ..
John Lee 1 2 3 .. 2
James Lee, Jr. 3 2 3 .. ..
Lemuel Lee 1 3 5 .. ..
Jeremiah Lee 1 .. 1 .. 4
Isaac Ingram 1 3 2 .. ..
Wm. Powell 1 .. 1 .. ..
Thomas Moore 1 .. 3 .. ..
Thomas Collins 1 .. .. .. ..

This 1790 census provides a huge family data base for some of my lines. I think it may be unusual to find white, free people of Color and slaves within the same household, but within the households of both of the Joseph Boone’s on top, that is exactly what we find. My curiosity is the FPOC. Joseph Jr. has three and Joseph Sr. has two, which should reflect their Native connections.

My theory at this point is that Mary Boone King is most likely the daughter of Joseph Boone who died in Edmonton 1728, and it is likely that her mother Elizabeth moved with other family members, Strickland and Boone, to Sampson/ Duplin county where Mary met and married Michael King, and it is likely that Mary Boone King went to Johnston County after Michael King died at about 1785, with her sons Joseph and Charles King where Joseph met and married Zilpha Powell of Johnston County. It all has to do with kinship connections probably all within Boon Hill or the surrounding areas or Princeton.

Identifying the Saponi Indians living next to Col. William Eaton

Native American Roots

The Native American community in Granville County was very much a community, and not a place where unconnected random Native American peoples settled. It was/is very much a thriving, connected community of very closely related families that have been intermarrying with one another in this exact location since at least the early/mid 1700s.

There is probably no better way to demonstrate this, than to identify the group of Saponi Indians that were documented living in Granville County next to Col William Eaton. In the previous blog post, I listed several sources from the mid 1700s that placed a group of Saponi families living next to Eaton. It is from this group of original settlers that the Native community in Granville traces its roots to. But who exactly were these early families and how can we identify them?

Here are a few things we can learn about the group…

View original post 2,194 more words

Descent of the Bunch Family in Virginia and the Carolinas

Ancestry.com did a grave disservice to an outstanding, well documented Native American family known as Bunch. I am a descendant of an older Susannah Bunch and her husband Thomas Holder. Thomas Holder (a.k.a. Holdenby in deeds) is mentioned in the will of Paul Bunch of Bertie county.

To tell you the truth, I expected better work from someone who is supposed to be professional. The gross neglect of ancestry.com on the part of the Bunch family falls in line with the controversial works by Heinegg and even Plecker.

Ancestry’s False Assumptions

The biggest untruths and wild assumptions made by ancestry.com was that, “John Punch is the only man who bears a surname similar to Bunch.” (They prove this false themselves by mentioning John Bunch, transport of Mr. Dodson) Further ancestry.com says, ” ….John Bunch I was born in Virginia.” And they also say, “evidence strongly suggests that John Punch was the father of John Bunch I.”

I’m gonna have to call bullpoop on this one. Never say “strongly suggests” and back it with very bad assumptions. Never use “strongly suggests” unless you have the smoking cannon. These three false assumptions only started the paper full of bad assumption but, what can you expect from ancestry.com.

NUMBER 1: John Punch was NOT the only man with a name similar to the name Bunch.

Ancestry backs this assumption with another flakey statement that the Bunch name is very rare in England and Scotland. So rare that two Bunch men could not have been in the same county to be the father of John Bunch I and then discredits a man name John Bunch that was transported to Virginia by a Mr. Dodson.

One John Bunch came to Virginia before 3 March 1656, on which date a Mr. Gervase Dodson was granted 600 acres in Lancaster Co., VA for the transportation to Virginia of twelve persons, one of whom was John Bunch. Anyone who brought new settlers to the colony was entitled by law to fifty acres for each settler. (This was called headright). https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Dodson-714

Several researchers actual credit this man “John Bunch” as being John Bunch I. Ancestry says they traced him out to his death and assume him to be a white man, and with more blatant assumptions, they wiped him out of the picture for good.

“Punch was a common name in England there is no evidence he was a Bunch. John Bunch was transported in 1650s…the report States he left no legal heirs but many of the early traders were gone 2-3 years at a time and presumed dead but were not. Judging from the early connections with Gibson’s and Indian traders I believe they come down from John, Jeremiah, William, or even Elizabeth….all early settlers unaccounted for. IMO the E hg Bunch line descends from slaves from 1500 with de Ayllon, de Soto and Pardo that mixed with the natives.” From anonymous

NUMBER 2: It is a very, very bad assumption that John Bunch I was even born in Virginia. There is no evidence where he was actually born. Its not like there is a record of it.

NUMBER 3: There is no strong evidence here for John Punch to be the father of anyone. There is an even smaller possibility the mother was European. The only thing they had was haplo results for descendants of Paul and John II as possibly have African origins. That is even up for debate. And they had a court proceeding calling John Punch African. One and one equals four. Right! How elementary can you get? Everything here is left to assumptions, even John Bunch I as the father of Paul and John II is assumed. At least it is a “safe” inference.

The direct Y line for Bunch could have left Africa 2,000 years ago. Grabbing the closest E haplo person possibility as a father and then assuming he found a white wife or someone white just to lay with, in a time and place when there were very, very few white women, is not a good assumption. I think it is ironic that at the time of John Bunch I birth, they could tell you the name and place of every white woman in the colony, but can’t tell you the name of the mother of John, nor can they narrow it down to a few possibilities. They would have been much closer to the truth if they had just assumed it was a sister of Pocahontas. Which actually goes with Bunch oral traditions, and explains why we have DNA matches to the Powhantan.

JOHN PUNCH, RANAWAY

John Punch ran away several years after John Bunch I was born. In fact, ancestry, and others, calculate that John Bunch I should have been born in the early 1630s, and if John Punch ran away in 1640, wouldn’t his indenture have been completed already if the average indenture then was between 4 to 7 years.? Ancestry states that Gwyn might have refused to let Punch go after fulfilling his obligation and that this was the motivator for John Punch to run away. I find it hard to believe that the “courts” would not follow the written indenture and free him and that a man would run away leaving a “wife” and a child with the master Gwyn. A runaway has nothing to tie him to the area. But that is irrelevant now.

FLUIDITY OF BUNCH AS INDIAN

There is no doubt about the haplo group of the Bunch men descendants of Paul Bunch or his brother John Bunch. There are studies suggesting its origins are North Africa or maybe Saudi Arabia. But this is irrelevant per se. There is no telling how long the Bunch have been out of those areas. Its like my own personal haplo group changed from RM269 to RM167 due to a shared mutation concetrated in Catalonia, Spain but my lineage can be traced in Longbuckby England through the 12th century. So my family possibly left the area of Spain when? Possibly never, or maybe 2,000 years ago. Same thing with the Bunch, mixed and well traveled. There is a greater possibility that our Bunch descend from the Bunce (sounds like Bunch) that Roger Bunch found on a ships manifest from Barbados to Virginia, along with one Gibson, than John Punch. Either way, the Bunch were mixed blood from the begining and continued as such. There are too many possibilities to concider that ancestry.com did not.

Joanne Pezzullo blog stayes, “No, there is no evidence John Punch left descendants, just as they said there is no evidence William Bunch of the 1665/66 record left descendants. They don’t tell you who twenty year old Eliza Bunch was that came over in 1635 or what happened to her. They don’t tell you Jeremiah Bunch was imported to King William County in 1671 or what happened to him. Or John Bunch who was imported (probably from South Carolina) by Robert Hix, Captain of the Saponi Fort, in 1716, or the mulatto (Indian?) slave who ‘went by’ John Bunch in the 1719 deposition.”

As found at: https://the-melungeons.blogspot.com/2012/08/we-wuz-riobbed.html?m=1

“1711 the Saponi were found residing near Windsor, Bertie County, North Carolina where just a few months ago a map was discovered to show a Fort, possibly that of the “Lost Colony”, so often mentioned with the Melungeons. The Bunch, Gibson, and possibly other families known as Melungeons lived in this area at one time. In fact Walter Gibson signed a Bertie County deed as a ‘chieftan‘ of the Tuscarora.”

By 1714 the Saponi were found at Fort Christianna with Captain Robert Hicks/Hix who was associated with John Bunch and Gideon Gibson.”

As found at:

http://the-melungeons.blogspot.com/2012/09/stuck-in-past.html?m=1

Capt. L. M. Jarvis, an old citizen of Sneedville wrote in his 82nd year:

…..” personally knew Vardy Collins, Solomon D. Collins, Shepard Gibson, Paul Bunch and Benjamin Bunch and many of the Goodmans, Moores, Williams and Sullivans, all of the very first settlers and noted men of these friendly Indians.

As found at https://the-melungeons.blogspot.com/2012/06/yes-virginia-native-american-history-is.html?m=1

Hancock County Times1903

Vardy Collins, Shepherd Gibson, Benjamin Collins, Solomon Collins, Paul Bunch and the Goodmans, chiefs and the rest of them settled here about the year 1804, possibly about the year 1795, but al these men above named, who are called Melungeons, obtained land grants and muniments of title to the land they settled on and they were the friendly Indians who came with the whites as they moved west.

As found at https://the-melungeons.blogspot.com/2012/06/yes-virginia-native-american-history-is.html?m=1

Richard Haithcock:

Volume 1. “Piedmont Catawba, Tutelo, Saponi, Nahyssan and Monacan Tribal History”. 522 pages. Mentions Bunch as Saponi Indian

“……..it should be noted that there is some evidence that the area of Alamance and Orange counties may still have had a few settlements of Indians who never left the region, and who consolidated with the Saponi to form the Texas settlement after the Revolutionary War. Various tax lists for Orange County in the 1750s include several families of so-called mulattos bearing the surnames Bunch, Gibson, and Collins. Jeramiah and Henry Bunch received land grants in the area, near the Eno River. The term “mulatto” had a somewhat different meaning in the 1700s; rather than defining simply a black-white mixture, the term was used to classify a wide variety of mixed-blood peoples, so the Bunches and others could easily have been mixed-blood Indians and not Africans (Forbes 1988).

Found at:

https://rla.unc.edu/dig/html/split/report47b.html

“Gibsons, Sizemores, Collins, Bunch, etc., had came from Wilkes County, North Carolina before settling near the Cherokee boundary. Mulberry Fields in Wilkes County was identified as a Cherokee town as early as 1752 by the Moravians.”

“This Jefferson Frye ismap of 1749 below shows Gist/Gyst with land at Mulberry Fields. Benjamin Cleveland was at Mulberry Fields in 1774 and in his list of tithables is John Gibson, son of Gideon Gibson of Marrs Bluff, South Carolina and his wife Agnes, daughter of the Cherokee Indian trader, James Adair.”

As found at: https://the-melungeons.blogspot.com/2013/04/cherokee-melungeons-part-ii.html?m=1

Incidentally, my Robbins/robins family were residents of Mulberry Fields in Wilkes county and knew these people. Judah James, sister of my 4th great grandmother Nancy James Robins, married an Owen Hall. An Owen Hall, a Cherokee, testified on the behalf of Ned Sizemore.

“In 1723, the House of Burgesses passed two acts expanding the definition of a tithable. As a result, those subject to the tax included all free negroes, mulattos, and Indians (except tributary Indians) above age sixteen and their wives (Hening, 4:133.) In addition to their tithable lists, all masters were required to list the names of every person between the ages of ten and sixteen “for whom any benefit of tending Tobacco is allowed by this Act.”

Paul Heinegg writes;

“The Collins and Bunch families were taxable “Molatas” in Orange County, North Carolina, in 1755 [T&C, box 1]. They were also associated with the Gibson family. Lucrecy Collins witnessed the 1775 Orange County, North Carolina will of George Gibson [WB A:195]. They probably came to Orange County from Louisa County, Virginia. George Gibson, Thomas Gibson, William Hall, Thomas Collins, Samuel Collins, William Collins, William Donathan, Benjamin Branham, and Samuel Bunch were living in Louisa County on 28 May 1745 when they were presented by the court for failing to list a tithable (probably their wives) [Orders 1742-8, 152, 157, 172].

As found at:

https://the-melungeons.blogspot.com/2012/07/racism.html?m=1

Free African American Taxables in Colonial Bertie County, North Carolina

File CCR 190: Bertie taxes of 1751, 1753 and 1754 are filed at CCR 190, among the Colonial Court records. These are summary lists, filed with the central government

1751 tax; This list provides some notations as to mixed-race people, but it is clear that many more are not so labeled. Only the total number of polls are given, with no racial breakdown. The following names represent most of the free mixed-race families:

Ashley, Thos.; Kate Demsey 2

Archer, Thoms., Mary, Baker, Abel free Mulatoes 4

Archer, John, Francis free mulatoes 2

Bunch, Ambrose 1

Bunch, Paul 2

Bunch, Jeremiah 3

Bunch, Jesse 1

Bunch, Henry, Cesar N. Man, Violet Womn 3

Bunch, Ismael 1

Thank you Joanne Pezzullo.

“There is no doubt there was mixing but to lump all these families together and declare them descendants of ‘Sub Saharan men and white women’ with no documentation whatsoever, nothing more than a few families with an E haplogroup and identified as a mulatto is irresponsible and does a great injustice to these ancestors and their descendants.”

https://the-melungeons.blogspot.com/2012/07/racism.html?m=1

https://the-melungeons.blogspot.com/search?q=Bunch&m=1

Joanne Pezzullo writes,

Thomas Robbins, Well now this is interesting, there has been a Lumbee DNA Project for years. No More! It has turned into ROBESON COUNTY NC AMERICAN INDIAN PROJECT. Wonder why? When that 2012 paper came out [one of the author runs this DNA Project] they proclaimed they could find no source of Indians for the Melungeons, ‘African men and English women,’ they said. Yet half the names on the Melungeon Project were also in the Lumbee Project. This name change is sooo very interesting.

https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/robesonconcamericanindian/about

Paul Bunch

“Paul was granted 265 acres on the south side of Morattock River in Bertie Precinct, North Carolina, on 1 January 1725/6 joining land owned by Simms, Gideon Gibson, Wilkins, and Quankey Pocoson (recall that Paul Bunch was Gilbert Gibson’s immediate neighbor in Hanover County as well). ”

**The Gideon Gibson, son of Gilbert can be a key indicator of relationship between Paul and Henry.

1747 Louisa Co VA: Thomas Collins sold 186 acres on Turkey Creek on the south side of the Southanna River to John Powell..the land lies near Gilbert Gibson, Thomas Gibson and Sam Bunch land.

1747 Louisa Co Va: Gilbert Gibson left a will naming sons Jordan, George and Gideon

**I match Gibson descendants from Gideon. I believe that Paul or John may have been married to a Gibson.

JOHN BUNCH, born about 1678–80, would have grown up in New Kent and Hanover
Counties, Virginia, but followed his father to North Carolina. William Stevens
Sr. sold John Bunch 270 acres on the south side of Morattuck Rover bounded by a
patent dated 1 February 1725/6. On
28 August 1728, John Bunch sold William Little (the man who purchased Fortune
Holdebee’s land) the tract “my father Paul Bunch bought of James Kelly on
Oceaneche.”

**This makes sense that John was in North Carolina with his father Paul and with Henry who were all neighbors, along with Thomas Holder and wife Sussanah Bunch. And it could be plausible in the next paragraph where this John could own land on the Santee as this researcher concludes but, it does not make sense that there was a straight move from Hanover to the Santee in 1731 as suggested at http://pamsfamilytrees.weebly.com/john-bunch-jr-notes.html

June 1733:
The Sapony and Nottoway Indians met with the Governor and
Council. The Sapo-nies were given permission to join the Tuscaroras if
they wished, provided that neither Nation would hunt on any lands patented
in Virginia, nor go among the inhabitants in groups of more than three.
The Sapo-nies were permitted to stay at their town until their corn was
gathered. If they decided not to join the Tuscaroras, they were to move to
some place beyond the inhabitants between the Roanoke and Appomattox rivers.
“Soon after this they all left the Fort. Some joined the Catawbas, and
some eventually joined the Five Nations of the Iroquois in New York.
“After the Indians left the region, all their former lands were taken up
in grants. The site of the Fort became known as Fort Hill Plantation.

*** I do believe that John, son of Paul, possible father of Henry, was married to Mary Gibson. Proof, just naming patterns and a tight bond between the Gibson and Bunch. No smoking gun.

John Bunch purchased
100 acres on the south side of Morattuck River adjacent Tuckahoe Marsh in Bertie County from Barnabee McKinne Jr. on 12 May 1729.
John owed quit rent on 640 acres in Bertie Precinct on 12 June 1737 (he was listed next to Henry Bunch). John Bunch had a plat for 350 acres (on a bank of the Santee River) and a half acre lot (No. 177) in Amelia Township certified 15 November 1735, when it was part of Berkeley County, South Carolina. John Bunch Sr. and his wife, MARY(GIBSON?), gave their son John Bunch Jr. 175 acres (half the tract he patented) with the town lot by deed of gift on 15 December 1755.

***John Freeman mentions purchasing 640 acres from Paul Bunch in his will and left it to his son Elisha. Perhaps the quit rent John was collecting was from that land.

There is an established relationship with two men of particular interest to me within the writing of his will. One is Thomas Holder, and the other is John Bunch.

WILL OF PAUL BUNCH

“In the name of God Amen, I Paul Bunch this 16th Day of November 1726-being of sound mind and perfect memory do make and ordain this my last Will and Testament revoking all other Wills and Testaments by me dame in Manner and Form following Imprimis I bequeath my sole into the hands of God that gave it and my body to the Earth from whence it sprung trusting in the merrits of my only Lord and Savior Jesus Christ to receive a joyfull Resurrection and as to what Estate it hat pleased God to bless me with in this World after my funeral charges and my Debts paid I give and dispose of in this manner following. I give a bequeath unto my son John Bunch that part of this land I now live on which he now lives on unto the line of marked trees right up and down as it is marked to him and his heirs of his Body lawfully begotten and further I give and unto my son John Bunch one Negro fellow named Dick to him and his Heirs of his Body lawfully begotten and I give one Iron Pott unto my son John Bunch and likewise I give and bequeath unto Fortune Holdbee this plantation that I now live on with all the lands that belongeth to the plantation unto John Bunches line to her during her life and then to fall unto Coziah [Kesiah] Holdbee and Jmiah [Jemima] Holdbee to be equally devided between them two sisters and if these two children die without heirs lawfully begotton of them to fall unto John Bunch and likewise I give and bequeath unto Fortune Holdbee two feather beds and half the household good and the other half of the household goods to Joseph Mecham and one half of my stock to Fortune Holdbee and the other half of my stock to Joseph Mecham only two cows and calfs first to be taken out of the stock and given unto Thomas Holder and then the rest of my stock to be equally divided between Fortune Holdbee and Joseph Mecham and likewise I give and bequeath unto Fortune Holdbee one Negro named Frank for her and her heirs as long as she lives
single and likewise my will is the Negro fellow named Daw to be between Fortune Holdbee and Joseph Mecham to help and —– one as much as the other in all his service and likewise I give and bequeath unto Coziah Holdbee one Mullatto wench named Pegg to her and her heirs of her body lawfully and in the care of her mother until Coziah comes to the age of eighteen years of married and likewise I give and bequeath unto Jmiah Holdbee one Negro girl named Betty to her and her heirs of her body lawfully begotten and in the care of her mother until Jmiah comes of age eighteen years or married and likewise I give and bequeath unto Joseph Mecham one Negro Wench named Moll and her child Fortune and one Negro Wench Roses and all my lands that I have over Roanoke River belonging to that plantation that I bought of Thomas Wilkens and one survey of land only 100 acres to Thomas Holdbee and likewise I give and bequeath unto John Bunch one Buchaneer Gun and lastly my will is that I appoint Joseph Mecham and Fortune Holdbee to be my Executors of this my last Will and Testament and my two Executors to receive all my Debts and pay all my Debts and what is coming after Debts paid to be equally devided between Joseph Mecham and Fortune Holdbee only I give Elizabeth Bunch one shilling sterling and my daughter Russell I give one shilling sterling this I appoint my last Will and Testament

As Witness my Hand and Seal this 16th day of November 1726- Paul Bunch
{Seal}~ ”

Testes.
Andrew Ireland
John E. Collon [Cotton]
Henry Irby [son]
Letters granted 10th day March 1726~”

The two names listed as Thomas Holder and Thomas Holdbee has been equated by some researchers as the same man. Thomas Holder is written as Holdenby in some deeds. Both names are thought to be derivatives of the name Holdenby. My Robbins tree has a matron with the maiden name de Holdenby and it is a name that seems to take on mutated form, so for now, I strike it as a possibility.

From Thomas Holder and Susannah Bunch, their son James Holder married Elizabeth Gilman?, their daughter Prudence Ann Holder married John Moore, their daughter Pheriba Moore married 2nd Charles King, son of Joseph King and Zilpha Powell, descendant of Bryant and grandson of Michael King and Mary Boone. Charles and Pheriba’s daughter Isabel married Jeptha Dean and are buried on the old homestead in Avalon, Texas, about 25 miles from me here in Waxahachie.

FYI: Obama’s mother is my cousin 3x through the Robbins/robins, Teague and Bunch families.

SOME BUNCH DESSCENDANT PICS

Lorenzo Dow Bunch, recorded as 7 foot tall, descendant of John Bunch II and member of the Cherokee Nation. More pics of his family http://bunchcousins.com/

Me and my youngest son Jeremy robbins. Outerbanks, NC

Waxahachie, Texas

Middle Aunt Lucy Robbins Marlow. Right Great Grandma Minnie Vick Robbins, descendant of Southampton, VA Strickland and Vick, father’s haplo Qm242

Cousin Briggett Marlowe Parker, sons are 6′ 8″ and 6′ 6″ and grandson 6′ 6″.

My father, Gysgt. Thomas E. Robbins Sr.

Cousin Robert Furgeson, son of Eula Mae Robbins

Me, hangin in Mississippi with real good company.

Nephew Moses Ramirez, son of Georgeann Robbins, 6’5″

Jeremy Robbins

Wesley Little Bear Robbins at Indian Woods Baptist church

Adam Robbins, oldest son 6’2″

Aunt Alice Robbins

My little brother Michael on the right reached 6’5″ in high school

Pic below, grandma Georgia Bell Patman Robbins; Bunch, Holder, Moore, Powell, King, Dean, Boone, Lee, Ingram, Bryant, Strickland descendant

Grandpa George Thomas Robbins Jr.; Vick, Turner, Strickland, Bennett, Harmon, Gibson, James, Brewer, descendant

King, ties to the Albemarle Native Tribes

The connectivity of the tribes in North Carolina facinates me. I wonder if colonialism forced the resulting assimilations of tribes, or if maybe it only just invigorated it.

ROBIN KING, MEHERRIN

Robin King, great man of the Meherrin, mentioned as having a son kidnapped in the October 1727 Calendar of Virginia State papers. According to journal entries of Nathaniel Harrison, the kidnappers were in fact a great body of “Cautaubwa” Indians, also referred to as “Sapponies” in the state papers, within the “Southern Frontiers of this Country”, namely of Virginia. It is extremely important to note that in this journal entry of Nathaniel Harrison, the King of the Catawba stated that two white men told them that the Meherrin and the Tuscarora “were all one and were always together”. That was the reason for their offense where they murdered several Meherrin and captured Robin King’s son, it was revenge on the Tuscarora.

At this point, there is no smoking gun stating specifically that Robin King is one of the descendants of the Michael King of the same area but the King’s continuing relations with both the Meherrin and Tuscarora warrants a positive conclusion.

Records from the colonial government are sparse. The colonial ideal on record keeping was not to record and keep track of every solitary Indian but rather more so focused on places and events. Michelle Mcmasters notes that many records were destroyed during the Civil War. To make things worse, the dividing line between the southern part of Virginia and Carolina was a no man’s land and the subject of a long time debate between the two charters. Much was lost during those years as well.

Within this territory between the future states, we find the Meherrin along with traders, outlaws and people just trying to avoid paying taxes to either colony. And of course the King family are there.

Land Patent Citations
Michael King, 1667, 300 acres adjoining Robert Brasseure, pat 6 p 50

Michael King, 8 Sep 1671, 600 acres, had been granted to Robt Brashure, decd. Now granted to King. Pat 6 p 479. (A better description is given in the patent to Robert Brasseure, 12 Apr 1653, 1200ac, 600 on the So side and 600 on the No side of the southern branch of the Nansemond River. Note that the 600 ac on the So side is near the head of Somerton Swamp described in the other King Patents. Details added by HLK.)

Michael King, 24 Feb 1675, 900 acres, Nansemond Upper Parish, In the way to South Key at a place now called Kingston, near head of a branch from Somerton Swamp, South Key. Adj lands of Jno Winborne, Bream and Robinson. Michael had transported 18 persons: Wm Smeberland, Marg Ferrell, Henry Okey, Mary Stepton, Mary Neckunun, Robert Short, Samll Dines, Em Absolom, Fra Young, Thoma Inglish, Eliz Holman, Margt mathewd, Robert Batch, Wm Gwinn, Thomas Ererard. Pat 6 p 597.

These records are cited by HLK:
“The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography”, published quarterly by the Virginia Historical Society for the year ending December 31, 1928 and is Volume XXXVI. At the end of the article is the statement “The Bible from which the above has been copied was printed in Edinburgh by Alexander Kincaid, HIS MAJESTIES PRINTER. MDCCLXIX. (Solomon King’s Bible.)

The will of Michael was probated in Albemarle County in the Province of North Carolina in 1700 as shown in a book by Mattie E. Parker and William S. Price, Jr., eds., “The Colonial Records of North Carolina , Second Series, Volume 3, North Carolina Higher Court Records 1697-1701”. State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, NC. Here William and John Early prove the will of Michael King, 1700, Oct-Nov General Court. The will itself has not survived.

Henry King(14) first appeared in the records of the Colony of North Carolina in 1701when he patented 302 acres on the Middle Swamp of Bennetts Creek. The land adjoined an earlier patent to John King(13). By 1714 he was living on Salmon Creek of what was then Chowan Precinct of Albemarle County, but is now Bertie County. Henry died in 1716, leaving a will written in 1714. Court documents show that Catherine King, widow of Henry King, was married to Gerrard Lynch in 1717. Other documents also show that John King(13) was guardian to Michael King(142) son of Henry King (14).Court documents show that at least four other children of Henry and Catherine were still minors in 1717, indicating dates of birth after 1696. The only child apparently of age at the time of the death of Henry was a son, Henry(141).The young ages of the children of Henry and Catherine would surely eliminate Catherine as being Catherine Clarke of Isle of Wight County, Virginia. If this were so, why would they wait so long to have children? This simply did not happen in those days. Besides, it can be shown that there was another Henry King in the Isle of Wight County, probably the one who had patented land there earlier. The fact that Henry(14) came to the Salmon Creek area from the Middle Swamp of Bennets Creek area is shown in a 1744 Chowan County deed in which Henry King of Bertie County sold 304 acres in Chowan County “on a swamp known by the name of Middle Swamp as by patent bearing date 7 Sep 1701 to Henry King of Albemarle County.” The metes and bounds shown in this deed agrees with those of the1701 patent to Henry King(14). This would imply that Henry King(141) was selling land inherited from his father. There is further evidence of this in the will of Henry King(14). In his will Henry left his sons Henry King and Michael King “land in Nansemond County between the flat swamp and the third swamp.” It must be remembered that until 1728 the area that included Middle Swamp was considered a part of Nansemond County. It was in a grey area in which patents were issued by both Virginia and North Carolina. It was administered by the Colony of Virginia.

Sommerton Creek, circled, ran through Sommerton Swamp. Meherrin Neck and Sommerton Swamp located in the disputed boundary no man’s land.

A little historical excerpt on the movement of the Meherrin.

Setled at old Sapponie Towne upon Maherrin River near where Arthur Cavenah now lives but being disturbed by the Sapponie Indians they drew downe to Tarraro Creek on the same River where Mr. Arthur Allens Quarters is, afterwards they were drove thence by the Jennet Indians down to Bennets Creek and Settled on a Neck of Land afterwards called Maherrin Neck because these Indyans came downe Maherron River and after that they began to take the name of Maherrin Indians, but being known the English on that side would not Suffer them to live there, then they removed over Chowan River and Settled at Mount Pleasant where Capt. Downing now lives but being very Troublesome there one Lewis Williams drove them higher up and got an order from the overnment that they should never come on the So. side of Wickkacones Creek and they Settled at Catherines Creek a place since called Little Towne but they being still Mischievous by order of the Government Collonel Pollock brought in the Chief of them before the Governor and Council And they were then Ordered by the Government never to appear on the South side of Maherrin, They Then pitcht at the mouth of Maherrin River on the North side since called old Maherrin Towne where they afterwards Remained tho they were…. https://docsouth.unc.edu/csr/index.php/document/csr02-0294 pg. 643-644

Members of the King family were always within proximity to the Meherrin wherever they were. Catherine’s Creek.

Bertie Co. Db D, page 20, date of deed 20 Oct 1733, date recorded , William Little, Esquire to Thomas Banks, Taylor (CLYDES NOTE: PROBABLY TAILER), Bertie Precinct, NC for five pounds, two tracts of land on the south west side of Chowan River at a certain place called Little Town, containing 640 acres and the other lying in Chinckapin Neck called Plum Tree Neck containing 200 acres of land, which land was formerly sold and (assigned) over unto said William Little by (Jenneth Banks). 12-9-99, NC State Archives film. http://files.usgwarchives.net/nc/bertie/deeds/jonathan420gdd.txt

It is interesting to note that William Little bought up land left by Paul Bunch, my 8th great grandfather, in his will of 1726 in Bertie county. Paul Bunch, an Indian, had grandsons who were named as Saponi on deeds for grants in Granville county. Gideon Gibson was Paul’s neighbor and is understood to be a relative of Paul Bunch. It was suggested they were cousins by Jack Goins.

I am calling Plumtree neck and Plumbtree Island synonomous. The modern name is Mush Island where Indian traders “squatted” during an off season. Indian traders were said to all have Native wives and or concubines by several sources as common knowledge.

Gideon GIBSON had lived near the Occoneechee Neck adjacent to land owned by Arthur KAVANAUGH, Ralph MASON, and Richard TURBEVILLE before buying land on Quankey Creek from Robert LONG[LANG], a Chickasaw and Cherokee Indian trader. LONG also owned land at Elk Marsh and Plumbtree Island. LONG had received his land patents at Quankey Creek and Plumbtree Island on 1 March 1719/1720.(34) https://nativeheritageproject.com/2014/12/27/james-logan-colbert-of-the-chickasaws-and-allied-trader-families/

Arthur Kavanaugh, an Indian trader, married the widow of Thomas Whitmell. Thomas is also recognized as an Indian Trader by this article’s author, Richard Colbert. “According to the Livingston book on the Tuscarora (1752 date), Thomas Whitmell was one of the richest Tuscarora Indians.” https://nativeheritageproject.com/2012/12/03/william-taylor-tuscarora-indian/

So it seems Occonechi Neck is close to Saponitown, and both are within “spitting range” of Arthur Kavanaugh’s land. Its really hard to follow one tribe’s history without getting entangled in another tribe’s history. If you follow these traders around, they give you clues to familial relationships as well.

11 Apr 1709 Chowan County, NC. Jacob COLSON witnesses a deed from Robert Hicks to Arthur Kavanaugh of Meherrin River, 1280 acres (Note from Doug Tucker – Kavanaugh and Jacob COLSON were Indian Traders. Kavanaugh lived among the Meherrin Indians at a site near the mouth of the Meherrin River and Jacob COLSON was his close neighbor. This was before Jacob COLSON moved his family, including son John, south to the Roanoke River – then called the Marrotock River.)

I have yet to actually track Kavanaugh with a deed to the area at the mouth of the Meherrin… but it all adds up that he would “visit”there… Kavanaugh had property near Robert Hicks* on the Meherrin River at modern Emporia, VA. It seems apparent that they would send their hides down the Maherrin to the mouth and Chowan River and thence to ports unknown. ‘Course Kavanaugh was also active around the Roanoke (Morattock) River area (had some property there also). Traders thick as flies around Occoneechee Neck…

*there were 2 Robert Hicks… one the trader in Emporia, the other a clerk in Chowan/Bertie

Anderson wordpress

It’s not too hard to see that traders like Kavanaugh or Hicks were heavily involved with the Meherrin and Tuscarora.

1713 John Jackson and Rebecca his wife of Prince George Co. and Ambrose Jackson of said Co. to Ralph Jackson of Surry Co. for 11, all that plantation of 100 acres in Prince George Co. being land formerly belonging to Henry King Sr. and sold to John Jackson Sr. dec’d and by him given to John Jackson Jr and Ambrose Jackson his sons, and is bounded by Robert Tucker, George Williams and James Williams with all houses etc. signed John Jackson and Rebecca Jackson Ambrose Jackson Wit. Arthur Kavanaugh, Batt Crowder, John Evans Rev. 23 Oct 1713. (Prince George County Ledger Bk. “B” pg. 244 (Wills & Deeds 1710-1713) Deed 12 Oct 1713)

William Boddie and his wife Elizabeth Boddie of Isle of Wight County then sold to John Duke “that plantation which Henry Kinge lately lived on. The said plantation and woodland ground is bounded thus . . . over against John Jackson’s ould plantation . . . whether the plantattion be one hundred acres or two hundred acres . . . we do not know.” The deed was witnessed by Anthony Davis, William Fowler and Walter Howell and proved 21 Oct 1689 (Isle of Wight Co VA Deed Bk 1, p. 21)

https://andersonnc.wordpress.com/ttt-arthur-kavanaugh-thomas-whitmel/

Henry King had passed, but we do not know why, and he left “orphans.” In another blog, his son Michael King also died leaving “orphans.” Michael’s wife was remarried and the children left with other mixed blood families in the Quitsna area.

“Jno King an Indian” complained to the governor’s council in 1695 that his people were “denyed their liberty of Hunting to which they pretent title by former agreement.” The Council ruled in his favor, saying “the Indians have liberty to hunt on all wasteland that is not taken up…” Michelle LeMaster, “In the Scolding Houses'” Indians and the Law in Eastern North Carolina, 1684-1760,” in The North Carolina Historical Review LXXXIII, no. 2, April 2006

John Was a pretty common name for descendants of Michael King and this Eastern area being of the Albemarle was thick with the King. Descendants today are found among the Meherrin, Chowanoke, Nottoway(Cheroenhaka), and all the Tuscarora groups.


My conclusion, simply is that these King come from the same root stock.

King orphans

MY KING LINE IN BERTIE

File contributed for use in USGenWeb Archives by: Guy Potts egpotts@gmail.com> October 18, 2017, 11:29 am

Bertie County, NC County Court Minutes, 1724-1739, Book I by Weynette Parks Haun 10 Aug 1736 – Deeds acknowledged: Edwd. Byrd to Michael King, 40/pd. 13 Feb 1738 – George Bell admr. of Robt. Bell dec’d, came into court and produced discharges from ** Michael King and John Bell, Archibald Bell, Wm. Byrd and Pennelope Bell for their parts of ye estate of ye sd Robert Bell which is ordered to be recorded.

This Robert Bell was the step father of Isabel Ferguson, wife of Michael King therefore a step father-in-law.

Bertie County, NC County Court Minutes, 1740-1743; 1758-1762, Book II by Weynette Parks Haun 13 May 1740 – Michael King and others were to lay out a road from the old road commonly called Black Walmut to Cashy River opposite to the Plantn. of Thos. Ryan where Moses Speight formerly dwelt. Thos. Ryan overseer and that the sd old road be cleared all ye inhabitants petd. for may work thereon &c. 1740 Second Tuesday in Nov – Mr. Thos. Ryan overseer of the road from Black Walnut Swamp to Cashy River opposite to ye plantation of sd. Ryan where Moses Speight lived informs this court that Thos. Sutton, Roger Snell, Geo. Bell and ** Michl. King four of the jury appointed to lay off the sd. road have refused in contempt of this court’s order to lay off the same. The court thereon taking the same into their consideration doth hereby amerce each of the sd. persons three pounds unless they shew cause at the next court and the court doth further… No date – Ordered that Tho. Sutton, Roger Snell, George Bells and * Michael King who were fined last court three pound each for their refusing to lay out a road from Black Walnut Swamp to Cashy River be remitted their sd. fines and that there be no road laid off from the sd. place. On petn. of sundry inhabitants living on Cashock? Creek setting forth &c. Read and referred. Rejected.

10 Aug 1742 – An Inventory of the estate of ** Michael King dec’d returned by Isabel King adms: on oath. A deed of Gift from Isbell King to her son Henry King ackd. in open court. ** Isabell King remarried some time between these two entries.

9 October 1742 – On the petition of Isabell Dyal praying this court to choose guardian for her children this court appoints Archibald Bell to be guardian to John King, Penelope King and Isabel King and produced his securities John Bell and Arthur Williams; James Castellaw to be guardian to Henry King, Catherine King and Mary King and produced for his securities Thos. Jackson and William Byrd. Ordered that bonds be prepared accordingly in the sum of two thousand pounds currency. Then appeared in court ** Michael King an orphan and chose Collo. Robt. West as his guardian the rest postponed.

✔ James Castellaw married Catherine Bryan, sister to Needham Bryant, the Tuscarora.

10 May 1743 – On motion of Jas. Castellaw relinquishing his guardianship to ** Michael King’s orphans to wit Henry, Catherine and Mary King, this court do appoint George Bell guardian of the sd. orphans he giving security in the sum of two thousand pounds whereupon he produced Jas. Castellaw and Wm. Byrd for his securities ordd. Bonds be prepared. Collo. Robt. West, Roger Snell and Nathl. Hill or any two of them are appointed to take out of the hands of Isabell Ryal (Dyal)the estate belonging to the orphans of ** Michael King dec’d and deliver the same to the respective guardians.

1743 August – Collo. Robt. West is appointed by this court guardian to the orpans of ** Michael King dec’d and ordd. he take (“the said children &” striked through) their estates in his possession he giving security in the sum of four thousand pounds.

File at: http://files.usgwarchives.net/nc/bertie/court/king2546gwl.txt This file has been created by a form at http://www.genrecords.org/ncfiles/

Some orientation on Moseley’s map as to where these families relate to the Kesiah River is indicated by the name J. Castellaw. I assume all of the children of James Castellaw married into other Tuscarora families, but they were in fact Tuscarora through their mother, a Bryant.

✔Notice the name W. Charlton in the left corner of this picture. He was involved with the Tuscarora as an interpreter and lived on the Indian Woods reservation.

Thomas Whitmell, John Hill, and William Taylor were appointed by the NC Government to investigate a Tuscarora complaint about a questionable land deal involving Humphrey Bates. (New Bern is located at the confluence of the Neuse River and the Trent River just northeast of New Hanover County and far south from Bertie County.) The land deal involved 300 acres on the Indian Woods Reservation supposedly given to William Charlton by Chief Tom Blount and then sold by Charlton to Bates.

William Charlton was an interpreter for Chief Tom Blount.

https://nativeheritageproject.com/2012/12/03/william-taylor-tuscarora-indian/

MIGRATION SOUTH

Later, the orphaned Michael King married Mary Catherine Snell, a daughter of Roger Snell. Two of his brothers also married Snell daughters. They moved as a family to Sampson, Bladen and Duplin counties with many other mixed blood native families.

Estate of Joseph Rhodes; list of debts due, leads me back to Bertie Boones

Duplin county was formed out of New Hanover county in 1750. Sampson was pulled out of Duplin in 1784. This area, along with other counties, became a “pooling” area for wayward mixed peoples from Bertie county and other surrounding counties. I have records showing my King kin at Cape Fear and Six Runs swamp from Indian Woods, and “Meherrin Town” before that.

I love finding lists like this because I enjoy connecting the dots, like I was five years old using a brand new crayon on a large dinosaur pictogram of dots following the numerical path of revelation. It only took one man’s death, Joseph Rhodes, to provide me with this entertainment. I was actually looking for Boone connections in Duplin county on the NCgenweb archives when I stumbled upon this treasure of “dots.”

My 6th great grandfather Michael King married my 6th great grandmother Mary Boone there in Duplin after his first wife passed away sometime after moving south from Indian Woods. I think I am sure she connects to Joseph Boone, son of Thomas Boone who married Elizabeth Strickland.

The list of debtors to the estate of Joseph Rhodes; http://files.usgwarchives.net/nc/duplin/court/rhodes198gwl.txt.

First off, the grandaughter of the deceased Mr. Rhodes is Sally Rhodes, daughter of William Rhodes, and is the wife of Michael King, son of my Michael King and his first wife, Mary Catherine Snell. There is a Michael King on the list, along with William King and…..Needham Bryan/t. Of course a younger Needham because the elder Needham passed in Bertie county about 1770. For those of you who do not know what I elude to, their was an encounter between an older Needham and an older William King on the Indian Woods Reservation. Irony!! Even more so ironic is that they are both uncles of mine on my father’s mother’s side.

More names that really stand out is Joseph Vick and all the Strickland and Strickling. My grandfather George Robbins’ mother was Minnie Vick, descendant of Joseph D. Vick of Southampton, Va. My line flows through Robert Vick Sr. and Jr. who both married Stricklands, if my records are straight. Ironically, if my grandmother’s Boone line did come from Thomas Boon, who married a Strickland according to the blog “Andersons of Colonial N. Carolina”, then my grandparents would both be descended from Matthew Strickland and wife Elizabeth LNU. I heard that Chief Walt Brown of the Cheroenhaka is from these Vick. So is my cousin Jeanette, a former clan mother of the Southern Band Tuscarora.

Ultimately, my hunt is for sound documentation of my Boone relationships. Could she have traveled with the Strickland? Possible. Is she related to Stephen Boone on the list or even to the Joseph Boone Jr. I found in Johnston Co., son of Joseph of Bertie Co. Maybe. Problem I have is I just can’t help but follow rabbit trails. There are several other names I see that link to Bertie and to my King, Bunch, or other extended family lines. But I have to let that go for now and concentrate on Mary Boone King. I do not have a solid birth year for her.

Run down of wills:

will of Joseph Boon
No county given
19 Feb 1728

Sons: James, Joseph, Thomas, Ratlif. Sister: Martha Bayley. Daughters: Mary and Elizabeth. Executrix: — Boon. Wife: Not named. Witnesses: Thomas Boon, Nathaniel Cooper. No probate.

The Mary Boon shown was the suspected second wife of my 6th great grandfather Michael King of Bertie Co. but she is actually a suspected wife of Carolus Anderson and probably older than my Mary Boone. No county was given nor was it probated. Same with his brother Nicholas.

Will of Nicholas Boon
No date and no county given

Sons: Nicholas (dwelling plantation), William, Joseph. Daughters: Mary, Martha and Ann. Wife: Mary. Executors: Mary Boone (wife), William Boon (brother) and Thomas Boon, Junr. Witnesses: John Strickland, John Ford, Nathaniel Cooper. No probate.

The witnesses seem to follow a pattern. This Mary Boon has birth years closer to what I have listed for her.

Will of William Strickland
Bertie County
May 1728

Sons: William, John (100 acres of land at Roanoak), Joseph (100 acres of land at Roanoak), Matthew, Samuel (“my dwelling plantation”). No wife or executor named. Witnesses: Nathaniel Cooper and Elias Ford. Clerk of the Court: Rt. Forster.

With this will it seems to tie everyone into Bertie county. But less than ten years before these events we have witnesses to the will of George Fort/Ford that prove interesting.

Will of George Fort
Chowan Precinct
15 May 1719
2 Oct 1719

Sons: Elias, George, Benjamin, John, Samuell. Daughters: Phelis Fibath, Elizebeth Font, Catherine Fort, Alice Fort. Wife: Elisabeth Fort. Executor: Elias Fort. Witnesses: William Boon, Niccolis Boon. Clerk of the Court: R. Hicks.

To further tie theses together without breaking down all the intermarriages between the Boon, Strickland, Fort/Ford and even Cooper/Cowper, we find connection by proximation to my King family at Kingsale, original location of the immigrant Michael King.

According to Hugh B. Johnston in a report in 1961 in regard to the Stricklands of IOW… “There does not appear to be reliable documentary evidence of his presence in Isle of Wight county earlier than 1678.”

His reference is evidently the patent on Kingsale Swamp.
Mathew Strickland received 2 large patents… one for 902 acres near Kingsale Swamp in 1678… another several miles north on the Blackwater River for 1802 acres in 1680.

“Matthew STRICKLAND appears to have settled about 1678 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia, where he passed the rest of his life. On June 6, 1687, Matthew (M) STRICKLAND gave a power of attorney to John BROWN to execute a deed to William EVANS “by reason of my nonability to travel to court held for this County the 9th of this Instant June” in Isle of Wight County, witnessed by Richard (RB) BOOTH and Elizabeth (S) STRICKLAND.”

On June 6, 1687, Mathew (x) and Elizabeth (E) STRICKLAND of the Lower Parish deeded to William EVANS of the Upper Parish for 4,000 pounds of tobacco in cask 800 acres in the Lower Parish between the Main Swamp of King Sail and Beaver Dam Branch adjoining William COLLINS (from a tract of 902 acres patented by the said STRICKLAND on September 26, 1678, of which 102 acres had been leased to Thomas JONES for ninety-nine years on November 6, 1682, witnessed by John BROWN, Richard (RB) BOOTH, and Robert ® LAWRENCE.

Richard Booth and John Brown had nearby property at Kingsale Swamp. This is just north of the Nansemond County line. The UPPER patent on the Blackwater River is where Thomas Boon was located. I have no idea WHEN he settled there?

https://andersonnc.wordpress.com/mathew-strickland-thomas-boon-iow/

Kingsale is an early location of my King family.

Michael King Patent 20 April 1694 – To All @Whereas @ Now know ye that I the Said Sir Edmund ANDROS Knt. Governor, @ do & with the advice and consent the Council of State Accordingly give and grant unto Michael KING, Jr. of Nansemond County, Eighty four Acres of Land adjoining to a Tract Land ????? by old M. KING called Kings Sale in Nansemond County beginning at a marked red oak being a Corner Tree of the aforesaid Old M. KING’S Land and a line Tree of John BRYANT and running Thence along Bryan’s marked Trees Northwesterly forty five degrees Eighty two poles to a Marked pine, Thence North Easterly twenty degrees one hundred and Ten poles to a Marked Gum, Thence North Easterly Sixty eight degrees forty four poles to a Marked pine, Thence South Easterly sixty degrees sixty eight poles to a Marked white oak standing in or nigh M. King’s Line, Thence South Westerly thirty degrees for one hundred sixty six poles by a Very Irregular Line of old Marked Trees of old M. King’s to the first Station, the said Land being due unto The Said Michael KING, Jr. by and for the Transportation of Two persons into This Colony all whose names are in the records mentioned under this patent, To have and to hold his @ to be held @ yielding and paying @ provided. Dated the 20th day of April Anno Dom 1694. E. ANDROS

There seems to be a pattern of migration from IOW and Nansemond to Bertie down through to the counties leading up to and surrounding Robeson.

Did some checking on the Stephen Boon from “the list”, the list I had forgotten by now. It seems that Stephen is the son of the William who is son of Joseph Boone of Johnston Co.

In 1730 Joseph Boon received a land grant for a parcel of land on the north side of the Neuse River in Craven County, Johnston formed from Craven in 1746. He and his brother Ratliff moved their families from Northampton County North Carolina in the early 1740’s. The land on which they settled was on the north side of the Neuse River near the present day road that leads to Richardson’s Bridge in Southern Johnston County. http://files.usgwarchives.net/nc/johnston/history/boon.txt

The Boone from Northampton and Bertie counties lived close to Brogdon, where my Powells from Bertie Co. lived and where Ava Gardner said her Tuscarora family were from.

So, is my Mary Boone King connected to Joseph Boone, son of Thomas of Northampton and IOW. Its very probable, but as a grandaughter from one of his children. My lineage from Michael King and Mary Boone is as follows: their son Joseph King married Zilpha Powell of the Brogdon Powells who came from Bertie county. Their son Charles King married Pheribe/Feriby Moore in Georgia, who was from the Bunch, Gibson and Moore who had moved to the Sampson, Cumberland and Duplin area from Bertie county. My Moore also descend from the Indian traders Richard Pace and Francis Poythress. Charles and Pheribe’s parent’s families were a part of the migration to the wiregrass of Georgia with other families like Pugh, Bass, Lowery, etc. Charles King legitimized his daughter, Isabell King in Georgia legislature in 1826 and married Pheribe, raising her sons Burleson Rogers and Pinkney Rogers as his own. Isabell King is my third great grandmother who is buried in Avalon, Texas about 20 miles down the road from me in Waxahachie.

As many of you know, proving relationships back that far is difficult and often even more so difficult if they were traders, longhunters, or Native. What makes things even harder is if they followed the matrilineal line surname, and to make it worse, jump to the patrilineal surname. I got some of those in my tree with names like Cotten, Wiggins, and Moore.